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Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, Alpha (a-MSH)

Clinical Significance:
a-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone is a 13 amino acid peptide produced from metabolism of Proopiomelanocortin.  One of the fragments of Proopiomelano-cortin is Adrenocorticotropin which is further fragmented to form a-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone and Corticotropin-Like Intermediate Lobe Peptide (CLIP).  The major biological property of a-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone is hyper-pigmentation.  It also stimulates Aldosterone secretion, alters the blood-brain barrier permeability for glucose, sucrose and albumin, and is excreted by the placenta.  Levels are higher in children dropping to adult levels as activity of the intermediate lobe of the pituitary declines.  a-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone is the major melanotropin in the rat corresponding to b-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone in the human.

Reference Ranges:
Adults:                            Up to 5.0 pg/ml

Procedure:
a-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone is measured by direct radioimmunoassay.

Patient Preparation:
Patient should not be on any Steroid, ACTH, or hypertension medication, if possible, for at least 48 hours prior to collection of specimen.  Morning, fasting specimens are preferred; non-fasting specimens are acceptable.

Specimen Collection:
3mL EDTA plasma should be collected and separated as soon as possible. Freeze specimen immediately after separation. Minimum specimen size is 1mL. Serum is no longer accepted for ISI's assay.

Special Specimens:
For tumor/tissue and various fluids (i.e. CSF, peritoneal, synovial, etc.) contact the Institute for requirements and special handling.

Shipping Instructions:
Ship specimens frozen in dry ice.

References:
1. DB Seifer and RL Collins.  Current Concepts of b-Endorphin Physiology in Female Reproductive Dysfunction.  Clinical Chemistry 54: 757-771, 1990.

2. M Shapiro, WE Nicholson, DN Orth, WM Mitchell, and GW Liddle.  Differences between Ectopic MSH and Pituitary MSH.  Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 33: 377, 1971.

 

Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, Beta (b-MSH)

Clinical Significance:
b-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone is a 22 amino acid peptide produced from metabolism of Proopiomelanocortin.  One of the fragments of Proopiomelano-cortin is b-Lipotropin which is further fragmented to form g-Lipotropin and b-Endorphin.  g-Lipotropin is then metabolized to form b-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone. The major biological property of b-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone is hyperpigmentation.  It also stimulates Aldosterone secretion and is excreted by the placenta.  b-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone is the major melanocortin in man.  b-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone has been found in elevated levels in cases of ectopic ACTH tumors and also in some non-endocrine tumors.  b-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone has also been shown to accentuate attention resulting in improved memory, heightened arousal and increased fear.

Reference Range:
Up to 150 pg/ml

Procedure:
b-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone is measured by direct radioimmunoassay.

Patient Preparation:
Patient should not be on any Steroid, ACTH, or hypertension medication, if possible, for at least 48 hours prior to collection of specimen.  Morning, fasting specimens are preferred; non-fasting specimens are acceptable.

Specimen Collection:
3mL EDTA plasma should be collected and separated as soon as possible. Freeze specimen immediately after separation. Minimum specimen size is 1mL. Serum is no longer accepted for ISI's assay.

Special Specimens:
For tumor/tissue and various fluids (i.e. CSF, peritoneal, synovial, etc.) contact the Institute for requirements and special handling.

Shipping Instructions:
Ship specimens frozen in dry ice.

References:
1. DB Seifer and RL Collins.  Current Concepts of b-Endorphin Physiology in Female Reproductive Dysfunction.  Clinical Chemistry 54: 757-771, 1990.

2. Y Hirata, N Sakamoto, S Matsukura, and H Imura.  Plasma Levels of b-Msh and ACTH during Acute Stresses and Metyrapone Administration in Man.  Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism  41: 1092, 1975.

 

Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, Gamma (g-MSH)

Clinical Significance:
g-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone is a 12 amino acid peptide produced from metabolism of Proopiomelanocortin.  g-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone is not structurally related to either a- or b-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone, but shares the same major biological function:  hyperpigmentation.  It also stimulates Aldosterone secretion, and is excreted by the placenta.  g-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone is usually present in very low concentrations.  In cases of ectopic ACTH tumors, g-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone is usually elevated.  Although its release is connected to the mechanisms controlling ACTH and b-Endorphin, it is not biologically or metabollically related to either.

Reference Range:
Up to  150 pg/ml

Procedure:
g-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone is measured by direct radioimmunoassay.

Patient Preparation:
Patient should not be on any Steroid, ACTH, or hypertension medication, if possible, for at least 48 hours prior to collection of specimen. 

Specimen Collection:
3mL EDTA plasma should be collected and separated as soon as possible. Freeze specimen immediately after separation. Minimum specimen size is 1mL. Serum is no longer accepted for ISI's assay.

Special Specimens:
For tumor/tissue and various fluids (i.e. CSF, peritoneal, synovial, etc.) contact the Institute for requirements and special handling.

Shipping Instructions:
Ship specimens frozen in dry ice.

References:
1. DB Seifer and RL Collins.  Current Concepts of b-Endorphin Physiology in Female Reproductive Dysfunction.  Clinical Chemistry 54: 757-771, 1990.

2. Y Nakai, I Tanaka, J Fukata, and K Nakao, S Oki, S Takai, and H Imura.  Evidence for g-MSH-Like Immunoreactivity in Ectopic ACTH-Producing Tumors.  Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 50: 1147, 1980.

 

Melatonin*

* Test available on a research basis only. Contact ISI for details.

 

Melatonin, urine*

* Test available on a research basis only. Contact ISI for details.

 

17-MethylTestosterone *

* Test available on a research basis only. Contact ISI for details.

 

Motilin

Clinical Significance:
Motilin is a 22 amino acid peptide produced primarily by the enterochromaffin cells (EC2 or M cells) in the intestine, duodenum and the jejunum.  It is absent from the stomach and colon.  Motilin accelerates gastric emptying and colonic motor activity.   Motilin also stimulates the feeding response.  It has no structural similarities with other gastrointestinal peptides.  Motilin secretion can be stimulated by acid and a fat-rich meal.  Motilin can increase the secretion of Pepsin and causes increased intra-gastric pressure.  Motilin also stimulates lower esophageal sphincter contraction.  Motilin levels are suppressed by Calcitonin.    Motilin has a short half-life of approximately five minutes. 

Reference Range:
Up to 446 pg/ml

Procedure:
Motilin is measured by direct radioimmunoassay.

Patient Preparation:
Patient should be fasting 10 - 12 hours prior to collection of specimen.  Patient should not be on any antacid medication or medications affecting intestinal motility, if possible, for at least 48 hours prior to collection.

Specimen Collection:
3 ml serum or EDTA plasma should be collected and separated as soon as possible.  Freeze specimens immediately after separation.  Minimum specimen size is 1 ml.

Special Specimens:
For tumor/tissue and various fluids (i.e. CSF, peritoneal, synovial, etc.) contact the Institute for requirements and special handling.

Shipping Instructions:
Ship specimens frozen in dry ice.

References:
1. D Dea, G Boileau, P Poitras, and RG Lahaie.  Molecular Heterogeneity of Human Motilin Like Immunoreactivity Explained by the Processing of Prepromotilin.  Gastroenterology 96:  695, 1989.

2. ND Christofides, SR Bloom, and G vanTrappen.  Postprandial Release of Motilin in Relation to the Interdigestive Motor Complex in Man.  Biomedical Research 2:  67, 1981.

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