Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is implicated in various biological functions to mediate inflammatory
response. It is produced from arachidonic acid by the activity of two enzymes, cyclooxygenase
and tissue-specific PGD2 synthase. PGD2 has been shown to play a role in cardiovascular
diseases, arthritis, kidney fibrosis, pulmonary disease, cancer and mastocytosis. 11β-PGF2α is an
F-ring product, produced from the reduction of PGD2 by AKR1C3 and is a stereoisomer of
PGF2α. Both PGF2α and 11β-PGF2α have similar binding affinities towards the Prostaglandin F
receptor and elicit similar biological activity. 11β-PGF2α is excreted in urine and is studied in
assessing mast activation in pulmonary diseases and cancer.
< 11.5 ng/mg creatinine
Urine 11β-PGF2α is measured by direct ELISA.
Patient should not be on aspirin, indomethacin, or anti-inflammatory medications, if possible, for
at least 48 hours prior to collection of specimen.
24 hours urine collection. Refrigerate during collection and mix well. Transfer 5 – 10 ml urine to
urine transport container and freeze immediately. Rejection criteria include: room temperature,
thawed or refrigerated specimens.
Ship specimens strictly frozen in dry ice.
- Liston TE, Roberts LJ 2nd. Metabolic fate of radiolabeled prostaglandin D2 in a normal human male
volunteer. J Biol Chem. 1985;260(24):13172-13180.
- Pellefigues C, Dema B, Lamri Y, et al. Prostaglandin D2 amplifies lupus disease through basophil
accumulation in lymphoid organs. Nat Commun. 2018;9(1):725. Published 2018 Feb 20.
- O’Sullivan S, Dahlén B, Dahlén SE, Kumlin M. Increased urinary excretion of the prostaglandin D2
metabolite 9 alpha, 11 beta-prostaglandin F2 after aspirin challenge supports mast cell activation in
aspirin-induced airway obstruction. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1996;98(2):421-432. doi:10.1016/s0091-
- Yoda T, Kikuchi K, Miki Y, et al. 11β-Prostaglandin F2α, a bioactive metabolite catalyzed by
AKR1C3, stimulates prostaglandin F receptor and induces slug expression in breast cancer. Mol Cell
Endocrinol. 2015;413:236-247. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2015.07.008