Interleukin 1α

Clinical Significance:
The Interleukins belong to the family termed cytokines.  They are peptides used by immune and inflammatory cells to communicate and control cell operations. The cytokines have some similar actions to the Growth Factors but Growth Factors regulate proliferation of non-immune cells.  Interleukin 1α is a 17,500 molecular weight peptide derived primarily from macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and B cells.  The major target cells are T and B cells, Fibroblasts, and Hepatocytes.  Interleukin 1α shares a receptor with Interleukin 1β although they are significantly  different structurally.  Interleukin 1α promotes antigen specific immune responses, inflammation, Prostaglandin secretion, Colony Stimulating Factors, proteoglycanase, collagenase, and gelatinase activity, and release of Interleukin 2 from T cells.  Levels are stimulated by liposaccharide, endotoxins, inflammatory agents, lectin, Tumor Necrosis Factor, and Interferons.  Levels are suppressed by Corticosteroids, Prostaglandin E2, and suppressant lymphocytes.

Reference Range:
Plasma/Serum: < 3.9 pg/mL

Procedure:
Interleukin 1α is measured by enzyme immunoassay.

Expected Turnaround Time: 10 Business Days

Turnaround time is defined as the usual number of days from the date of receipt of a specimen for testing to when the result is released to the ordering facility.

Report: Sample Report

Patient Preparation:
Patient should not be on any Corticosteroids, anti-inflammatory medications or pain killers, if possible, for at least 48 hours prior to collection of specimen.

Specimen Collection:
3 ml serum or EDTA plasma should be collected and separated as soon as possible.  Freeze specimen immediately after separation.  Minimum specimen size is 1 ml.

Rejection Criteria: Gross hemolysis/lipemia/icteric

Special Specimens:
For tumor/tissue and various fluids (i.e. CSF, peritoneal, synovial, etc.) contact the Institute for requirements and special handling.

Shipping Instructions:
Ship specimens frozen in dry ice.

References:
1. JT Whicher and SW Evans.  Cytokines in Disease.  Clinical Chemistry 36: 1269-1281, 1990.

2. MP Bevilacqua, JS Pober, GR Majeau, W Fiers, RS Cotran, and MA Gimbrone.  Recombinant Tumor Necrosis Factor Induced Pro-Coagulant Activity in Cultured Human Vascular Endothelium:  Characterization and Comparison with Action of Interleukin-1.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 83: 4533-4537, 1986.